Where The Money Goes

A comment on our last status update mentioned our budget. Our plan is to make a new game for a lot less than it cost to do King of Dragon Pass. Hopefully our experience (with KoDP and games in general) will let us do things more efficiently this time. We will likely do a lot less reworking of certain elements than we did the first time, since we have a better idea ahead of time what should work. And automated testing will let QA concentrate on bugs only a human can find.

budgetplanThe pie chart shows where we expected to spend our budget shortly after starting. The bulk of the expense (44%) was projected to be art.

Note that this doesn’t include any sort of overhead (like development machines, internet access, etc.). And I’m not directly expensing my own time. In other words, this is just what we expect to pay our freelancers.

This was just a plan, and once we were far enough along to see how things were working, we realized had to do more writing and art. So the final percentages will end up a bit different, though art will predominate.

(And yes, the title of this post is an excuse to watch OK Go.)

October Progress Update

troll warrior leans on a spearI’ve been working full time on Six Ages for over two years, but it’s still not done. How far along is it?

Answering that question is a little hard, partly because I haven’t devoted as much time to managing the status as I have on creating the game. I am pretty sure of one thing: it will not be released this year, as I had originally hoped.

Other than that, I’m pleased with the progress. One important reason is that the budget needed to be significantly less than King of Dragon Pass, and even as development continues longer than I had planned, we’re still OK on costs. And game play is complete enough that you can play a complete game, so we can start improving that. And complete enough that we can tell a lot of things are working pretty well.

One reason that things are taking longer than my original plan is that as we developed the game, it became obvious that it would need more scenes and accompanying art than I had first thought. We now have 40% more scenes, and 59% more scene art, in fact!

More scenes means not only more art, but more time needed to write them, more time needed to code them in our scripting language, and more time needed to make sure that all branches are tested. As I’ve written before, we are done with the writing. We’ve also completed script coding. Testing is harder to measure (since some branches depend on external conditions or chance), but over 3/4 of scenes have had all branches exercised. (Our automated testing isn’t as thorough, though it adds another level of confidence.)

Children cheer, dressed for winterIf the art needs hadn’t grown, we would be completing the scene art this month. But there are more scenes. And on top of that, since it’s a different game than King of Dragon Pass, we can’t reuse some art in the same fashion. So there’s still a bunch to go. On the other hand, we have a lot of really good art.

The game is certainly far enough along to start its tutorial. The first draft is nearly complete. Thanks to those who gave input!

Besides finishing the art, a few big tasks remain: music, manual, user interface polish, and a lot of game tuning. That will clearly take us past the December holidays and into next year.

Tutorial Planning

We’re screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-19-53-09 in the process of working on the game’s tutorial.

We’re starting a bit earlier than we did with King of Dragon Pass (since the game is not done), and we’re also taking a somewhat different approach.

King of Dragon Pass had a scripted tutorial, which tried to take you on a tour of the important elements of the game. But it was too easy to get off the rails and either miss things, or confuse the tutorial. (And as a side note, it was actually not the best first play experience since you raided during planting season — we wanted the tutorial to mention this, but if you then continued the game, you were in a small hole.)

Six Ages will take a more reactive approach. Instead of telling you to switch to the Map screen, and then describing exploration, it will wait until you switch on your own, and then describe exploration. It will also (for example) mention the size of a reasonable sacrifice the first time you’re asked to sacrifice. So you’ll get the information when it actually matters.

One thing I’d like to do is ask King of Dragon Pass players what confuses you about the game. For example, we once got a bug report that clan magic went negative. That’s actually by design, but if it confused someone, we can pop up a tutorial card when it happens. I expect we’ll have a manual too, but if something seems wrong, you’re not going to go look it up.

So please let us know what confused you or you think needs better explanation, here in the comments (or to @SixAges on Twitter).


Like King of Dragon Pass, Six Ages will include magical treasures. They’re Gloranthan (they were in the original White Bear & Red Moon game, and lots more in the subsequent Nomad Gods), and they are a useful reward and fun to collect.

And they’re essentially all unique, which is great as a player but less wonderful as a developer.

As a developer, I want treasures to be easier to work with this time. KoDP had some annoying limits on how many there were (adding a treasure meant breaking the file format of saved games), which was an obvious thing to improve. But KoDP had the implementation of treasures scattered everywhere. Basically, each treasure needed specific C++ code, plus it might have to be listed in an IsBattleTreasure or TreasureThe (it’s “Vinga’s Comb,” not “the Vinga’s Comb”) function.

First, we designed as many as possible with script tags in mind. In other words, Robin Laws would describe a treasure’s effects as “+1 to Bargaining and Diplomacy in scenes tagged @outlanders.” Then, I’d specify treasures as Lua data like

modifiers = { Bargaining = 1, Diplomacy = 1 },
requires = { "@outlanders" }

so there’s no treasure-specific code. Compare to KoDP having to insert lines like

case code_Leadership:
    if (ourClan->HaveTreasure(kRingMadeFromVingkotsCrown))

Part of the advantage is that the details of the treasure effect are all in one place, next to metadata (such as name, description, value, use of “the,” and whether a treasure needs to be chosen in battle).

The data-driven approach also handles things like “mood+=13 on any Food win”

onWin = {"Food", "mood", 13},

Combat has some additional complexity, so “+1 Combat when raided by elves” is the Lua table

battle = { type = type_Raid, defender = true, opponentStereotype = "aldryami", bonus = 1 },

To summarize: we tried to design to a number of patterns, wrote general-purpose code to handle the patterns, and then specify how a treasure slots into the pattern with Lua data.

Of course, magic doesn’t always fit a pattern, so we can run an OSL script

everyTurn = "fragment_MostaliMill"

or have a script check for a treasure

code: fragment_SacredTime
[HaveTreasure('bowlOfUnity)] {
    # .magic +=1 each Sacred Time if Expansiveness>0

Not quite as good as pure data but better than requiring code.


A treasure is now a way to encapsulate a conditional modifier. I started to notice another pattern, where player choice could result in a modifier. Rather than come up with a new scheme, I just made new treasures. (I called them quasi-treasures because they act like treasures but don’t look like treasures. Notably, they don’t appear in lists of treasures in the user interface.) In fact, one of the examples above is actually a quasi-treasure.

Treasures are typically gained permanently and quasi-treasures often go away after a certain number of years (for example, the visiting priest’s blessing lasts five years). This can be handled by the normal GainTreasure/LoseTreasure functionality (i.e. just queue a script to run in five years that executes the LoseTreasure function).


We discussed showing treasures, and Jan mocked up a treasure illustration. However, I decided against a visual representation. It’s a lot of work just designing what dozens of treasures look like, let alone getting all the pictures. More importantly, it would increase the difficulty of adding new treasures in an update (which we did twice in KoDP, despite the hassle), since they would need pictures.

So this is the only place you’ll see the mallet…

Art Styles

One of the ways that Six Ages is following in the footsteps of its predecessor is to use very distinct art styles for different purposes. Here’s a brief look at the directions we’re going.

The Distant Past

HealerAlthough we debated a variety of styles, in the end we decided to stick with a “woodcut” look to represent things that took place a long time ago (i.e. for the clan questionnaire). I found our artist because she had a show at the gallery a few blocks away. Here’s a look at a Gods War event by Damara Kaminecki.

The Present

Troll tradersKeeping the ink and watercolor style for the bulk of the illustrations, which are set in the here-and-now, was not really questioned. We did consider different nuances, and Jan Pospíšil did a few test pieces. There are a number of artists working in this style — this is one of Jan’s early pieces, which helped establish the tone. (Note that the trolls are awake early, since the sun has not fully set.)

The Otherworld

Blue DragonThe world of the gods is key to a game set in Glorantha, and we again wanted a look that was very different from the mundane world. We didn’t have any preconceptions, though once again we were drawn to Magic: The Gathering artists. But we ended up going with a local artist, who has a distinctive style. Here’s Michelle Lockamy’s take on a Gloranthan archetype, the blue dragon.

So It Is Written

Rune of writingThe game just hit an important milestone: our writer/designer Robin D. Laws has completed his work. All of the interactive scenes and myths are written.

This doesn’t mean the game is almost done. If I recall correctly, Robin also finished his work on King of Dragon Pass well before anyone else. But it does shift gameplay development into a refinement phase.

Other aspects of the game have only barely started, such as music and a tutorial. And there’s still a lot of art to draw.

And it’s possible we’ll need a few new scenes, though someone else will likely write them.

A very approximate guess as to how much Robin has written is 400,000 words. (The scene compiler outputs a text file with all the strings, which we will be spell checking. This file contains 402,293 words, though some of these are names of music or other aspects of implementation.) That’s as much as ten short novels!

While you’re waiting to read Robin’s work in Six Ages, you can check out some of his other recent work, which has been nominated for ENnies Awards.

Sweeps Week

s235-pencils-cropSince essentially all of the game’s scenes have been written and coded, I figured it’s time to start sweeping.

“Sweep” is the term we use when we find an issue, and realize that it could apply to every scene in the game.

For example, the bug report

I noticed a [q > 4] which is probably not possible

is something that could affect any scene. So today I searched every script (i.e. swept the code) for similar patterns (e.g. [q = 4] was also a problem, because in rare cases, the special variable q can indeed be set to 5).

And the task

Tag @cattleWard for Cattle Ward blessing

meant I had to go through every script and see if the blessing (“Protects our cattle herds from predators”) was relevant. If so, the script needed the tag. Going through everything, I realized that the description actually needed to change, to “Protects our cattle herds from raids and predators.”

The sweep that’s had the biggest impact has been

Sweep to be sure ChooseLeader is followed by a leader test

In other words, if you pick a leader, then it’s that leader’s Bargaining or Combat that will be used to overcome opposition. We had tried to catch these cases, but missed a few. And this was by far the most brute force sweep, since ChooseLeader is very common.

It looks like there are about 15 of these in our bug tracker, and about half are done. I expect to finish them this week.


Scene Tags

Since Six Ages is our second iteration of a storytelling game, I wanted to make sure it would be easier to do certain things. Being able to categorize scenes was something that was easy to improve on, since in King of Dragon Pass, everything was a special case. For example, when we wanted to make sure you got to deal with tribal disputes when you were a king, we had to list them all.

switch (COpal::DieRoll(4)) {
 case 1:
 scene = scene_R397TradeDispute;

case 2:
 scene = scene_R398MagicalDispute;

case 3:
 scene = scene_R399PoliticalDispute;

case 4:
 scene = scene_218ComplainORama;

This was fragile — scene_218ComplainORama was actually a fairly late addition in version 2.x, and I had to make sure that it was included in that code.

Likewise any news that was considered a random rumor had to be listed. This at least was data instead of being buried in C++ code, but it was still separate from the actual news.

SceneIDT CScene::gRumors[] = {

So I came up with the idea of tagging scenes. Here’s what the OSL documentation says:

Tags begin with @. They can be any word (e.g. @help, @hurt, @tutorial, @actThree, @endgame, @notEnd, @codeTrigger, @frequent, @infrequent). Tags can be purely informational, only a few have predefined meanings. Feel free to invent tags. Tags could be used when triggering scenes at random. (For example, if the player is doing poorly, there could be an increased chance of an @help scene. If the player is very wealthy, it might be time for an @hurt scene.)

So there could be an @kingly tag and an @rumor tag. Implementing a random rumor can start with something like

rumors = [self scriptsWithTag: @"rumor" ofType: type_News];

which searches all scripts for the tag (also choosing only news scripts). A typical rumor will include the tag

news: news_R14Quake
speaker: WhoHasHighestSkill(ClanMembers, 'magic)
text: I don’t have to tell you about the earthquake, since everyone felt it.

Most of the tags are indeed invented (usually by Robin Laws as he writes scenes). To help check on consistency, the scene compiler outputs a report of tag usage, which lets us make sure it’s consistently @dwarves and not sometimes @mostali or @dwarfs. A few are used internally (e.g. @nameEntry marks a script that needs a name field added to the UI), but most of these let us control the story.

For example, Robin can create a scene where you perform anti-dwarf magic and write, “Scenes tagged @dwarves do not trigger 30 + q seasons,” which can be coded

t = "@dwarves"
w = 30 + q
triggerWithValue code_EnableTag t w

(This takes 4 lines instead of two because of some limitations in the OSL scripting language.) A typical dwarf-related scene would then be tagged

scene: scene_37DwarfTrade
scene037, left, random, @dwarves, @trade, mayRepeat

The arbitrary tags also help implement the magic system. For example, a magical effect can be defined as

 name = "Elf Friend", tag = "@elves",
 explanation = "Helps our dealings with the Aldryami"

which gives a bonus to any scene that has been properly tagged. One of the tasks to do once all scenes are coded is to verify the tagging for magical blessings that depend on it.

Robin extended the idea with what I call dynamic tags. For example, he came up with a scene which could have a variety of outsiders. So he wrote, “scene gains tag @dwarves.” The implementation is

AddSceneTag(ThisScene, "@dwarves")

Obviously, making sure a scene has the right tag for a random outsider is important when there are blessings that are tied to tags.

I’m also making use of tags to help ensure correctness. For example, sometimes a scene wants to trigger another scene years later, but perhaps a character in the scene is off exploring when the time falls due. We handle this by triggering a code fragment, which can handle whether the character is exploring, died, or whatever. This sort of check is usually added once we start testing, and it would be nice to make sure that we caught every place that triggered the delayed scene. So the scene compiler makes sure that any scene marked @triggerFromCode can’t be triggered directly (but only from a code fragment tagged @triggeringCode).

And our unit test that runs every script simply runs them in an arbitrary order. Scenes may rely on having been run in a particular order, so the unit test may need to do setup that would have happened in normal execution. So there are tags like @unitTestWithClan and @unitTestWithPerson. This isn’t necessarily an exact match for normal execution, but it works for this level of brute force testing.

By the way, the @help/@hurt idea is not implemented at the moment. I’m not sure if it will be, but the flexible tagging system makes it easy to add at any time.

Sacred Time Recap

Several King of Dragon Pass players requested a way to see what their Sacred Time allocations of clan magic were. In most cases, advisors will remind you on the relevant screen (especially in version 2, which added a lot of advice to the management screens). For example, in the Magic screen, if you put points into Quest magic, someone will have the advice “We prepared for a quest during Sacred Time. Our chance of success is good” (assuming it’s not trumped by some other circumstances).

Magic ScreenWhen I began Six Ages, I wanted to have a centralized place to see everything. Until recently, it didn’t seem like it would fit. Then Robin Laws suggested showing some other information, and I realized that the Sacred Time allocations could be added as well. (The slider lets you choose to see the gods, or the new other information.)

Concept Inspiration

Raven ConceptSomewhere along the line, Jan Pospíšil drew a concept sketch that I liked, but that didn’t seem right for a member of the player’s clan (which was the original thought).

Recently, Robin Laws and I were going over the interactive scenes that are currently in the game, and figuring out what was lacking. He came up with a new scene that seemed like it perfectly fit the sketch.

So the scene is now written and coded, and we’ll be doing a full illustration based on the quick design. Sometimes good concept ideas never make it into the game, but I’m glad this one can.